Features of C++ Programming Language
As we all know that C++ is an extension of the C language, it possesses many features which C did not. Features like cross-platform and mid-level programming give C++ an upper hand over many programming languages. We will dedicate this tutorial to make you known to those C++ features.
Various features of C++ are given below:
- Compiler based
- Structured programming language
- Fast & Powerful
- Mid-level programming language
- Memory Management
- Rich Library
Now let’s discuss these features one by one.
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Features of C++
1. Object-oriented Programming
C language was invented as a procedural language and it lacks OOP concepts which were then added in Cpp, making it an Object-oriented programming language.
Concepts like Encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism, and Abstraction increase the efficiency of a C++ code. It helps users in various aspects and we will learn about them in the upcoming tutorials. This was the main upgrade from C++ and it makes the maintenance and development better.
Even though C++ is not platform-independent as compiled programs on OS1 won’t run on OS2. But being machine-independent makes it portable enough as C++ code written on OS1 can run on OS2, with little or no changes.
C++ is a compiler-based language i.e., we need to compile the code before executing it. Without compilation, there is no execution. Being compiler-based, it is comparatively faster than interpreter-based programming languages like Java and Python.
4. Structured programming language
As discussed in the introduction to the C++ article, we learned that C++ is a procedural programming language.
We know that a subset of the procedural programming language is a structured programming language. It allows users to break the whole program into smaller units or functions. This programming paradigm aims at improving the readability, reusability, and clarity of the code.
5. Fast & Powerful
Being a compiler-based language, C++ is much faster than many programming languages. Compilation and execution time are also faster allowing it to build game engines.
6. Mid-level programming language
C++ is a structured and procedural programming language that makes the execution smooth and fast. No garbage collection and features like dynamic typing make coding in C++ even faster.
C++ can be used as both a low-level and high-level language. As a low-level language, C++ is used for drivers and kernels. While as a high-level language, it is used for developing games and desktop applications. This is why C++ is also known as a mid-level programming language.
7. Rich library
C++ along with other added benefits provides users with a vast range of in-built libraries. These libraries help in making the software development process faster and better. Just by the use of proper header files, such libraries can be accessed by everyone.
Some of the important header files along with their functionalities are:
- <iostream>: standard input and output functions.
- <fstream>: helps in performing file inputs and output operations.
- <cmath>: math library functions.
- <memory>: they help allocate memory to the C++ standard library containers for the classes and functions previously used by them.
- <algorithm>: helps in changing data in C++ standard library containers.
- <ctime>: functions for manipulating date and time.
For instance, COUNT and count will be read as two different identifiers. Languages like HTML, Fortran, SQL, and BASIC are not case-sensitive.
According to the IT world, extensible means something which can be modified or expanded from its beginning stages. C++ has been modifying its features with frequent version updates. The ability to adopt many new features with different versions makes C++ extensible.
Recursion is a process where a function calls itself, directly or indirectly. Such functions are recursive functions. C++ supports recursion which allows the user to reduce the time complexity of a code.
As we have discussed, there should be no doubt that C++ is popular. It is fast, machine-independent, and can even perform both low-level and high-level operations. Precise control over memory use and efficiency makes it even more popular in developing games and desktop applications.
C++ is a structured programming language which allows us to break the code into different sections. This helps us make the code simple and commutable.
As we know that C++ has a rich set of libraries, that can come in handy if you want to use the features they provide. C++ being an extension to C language, makes it easier to switch to C++ if you’ve previously worked with C.
C++ is even similar to C# and Java, which makes it easier to switch to and from the other programming languages.
13. Memory Management
Memory Management is nothing but assigning memory space to the programs for the betterment of performance. C++ supports dynamic memory allocation, which supports freeing and allocating memory anytime.
C++ uses new and delete unary operators to allocate and free memory respectively. We can even call the free() function to free memory anytime.
While working with classes and objects, constructors and destructors can be used for the same purpose.
The pointer allows us to interact with the address and not the value, which allows for better performance. C++ allows us to use pointers for memory, functions, arrays, and structures.
In this article, we at TechVidvan hope that we made you get a clear view of the amazing features of C++. Due to all these features, C++ is fun to work with and it is also better than many other programming languages. These features act as pillars and help make C++ this popular.